The Rise of Indian Hip-Hop
Once at the margins of the music scene, hip-hop is now going mainstream, driven largely by the angst of singers in languages other than English
The tea-shop outside Khalsa college inÂ Matunga, Mumbai would, a couple of years ago, beÂ mostly infested by a bunch of young guys narratingÂ their lives in rhythmic verse, as crowds slowlyÂ gather around. They were called the Schizophrenics,Â a hip-hop crew Naezy (Naved Shaikh) started withÂ Neykhil Nayak (N-Cube), the only other guy in hisÂ classroom who used to listen to hip-hop at the time. â€œWe were supposedÂ to go there to study, but weâ€™d just bunk classes and do ciphersÂ all day,â€ says Naezy. A cipher (or cypher) is a DIY, almost-impromptuÂ gathering of artists and fans â€” on the streets, at corner shops, inÂ cafÃ©s â€” where rappers take turns freestyling, playfully dissing eachÂ other from time to time, often accompanied by a beatboxer. â€œWith hip-hop,â€Â he says, â€œall you need is a beatboxer and the story of your life.â€
When I get in touch with Prabh DeepÂ Sagar, or Prabh, heâ€™s at a studio in HauzÂ Khas Village in the capital, getting two fullÂ sleeve tattoos on his arms. On one sleeve,Â thereâ€™s going to be a rose, a $100 bill, aÂ gramophone, a microphone. The otherÂ follows a warrior theme. The overarchingÂ concept, he explains, is of a musical warrior.Â Prabh raps in Punjabi and English now, butÂ his journey in hip-hop began via b-boyingÂ (breakdancing), and he recounts oneÂ of the first ciphers he went for severalÂ years ago, held in a temple auditorium,Â where hundreds of people showed up.Â He has set up a couple of road jams inÂ the past, and he tells me about anotherÂ thing heâ€™s planning: â€œIâ€™m organizing aÂ block party in my gully, where Iâ€™ll inviteÂ everyone in my area; people will getÂ together and talk. Weâ€™ll have a jam. ItÂ was different when I was growing up;Â these days, neighbors donâ€™t even knowÂ each other.â€
Prabh collaborates with Sez (SajeelÂ Kapoor), a producer in Delhi who has providedÂ the music for a host of artists, includingÂ Divine and Naezy, the two young rappersÂ from Mumbai whoâ€™ve pretty much explodedÂ in the past couple of years. â€œMere GullyÂ Meinâ€ (by Divine and featuring Naezy),Â arguably the breakthrough song from thisÂ scattered movement, also features productionÂ by him. Sez, who runs Stunnah SezÂ Beats (an online beat store) along with fellowÂ producer Stunnah, tells me about IndianÂ Coffee House, an inexpensive rooftop cafÃ© inÂ Connaught Place where people get togetherÂ and discuss music, communicate, learn fromÂ each other, hone their skills. Hive, in GreenÂ Park, hosts an afterparty-esque hip-hopÂ evening curated by Prabh and DJ KarmaÂ each Thursday.
Today, underground hip-hop has turnedÂ into a big deal. Divine (Vivian Fernandes)Â has signed on to Sony Music, which has beenÂ pushing his music heavily. Brodha V wasÂ also, until last year, signed with the sameÂ label. Naezy is being managed by OML.Â Guys like Sikander Kahlon in Punjab, MCÂ Kash from Kashmir, Borkung HrangkhawlÂ (BK) from Tripura, theyâ€™re all doing theirÂ own thing. Movements are sprouting acrossÂ the country, with rappers using local and regionalÂ languages to connect with audiencesÂ (Tamil, Gujarati, Marathi, Punjabi, Hindi),Â lending a sense of identity to a sound thatÂ has been adopted â€” and adapted â€” fromÂ the west.
â€œMera gig tha, merkoÂ hi entry rok diya. StagÂ nahi chalega (I wasnâ€™tÂ allowed to enter myÂ own gig because I was a single guy!)”- Prabh
Frequent gigs at popular pubs are theÂ norm, with artists I spoke to citing the HummingÂ Tree in BenglauruÂ as a particularlyÂ welcoming venue, while High Spirits (Pune)Â is also spoken of fondly. Itâ€™s different fromÂ just a couple of years ago, where venuesÂ were opposed to vernacular rap becauseÂ they associated it instantly with the moreÂ mainstream strains of commercial hip-hopÂ popularized by the likes of Honey Singh andÂ Badshah. In fact, Prabh recalls a gig whereÂ he was supposed to perform, but was deniedÂ entry at the gate. â€œMera gig tha, merko hi entryÂ rok diya. Stag nahi chalega [they werenâ€™tÂ letting me enter my own gig because I was aÂ single guy!],â€ he laughs.
Itâ€™s changed now. Divine received heavyÂ circulation on the BBC Asian Network, landingÂ him a spot at a gig in London, the AsianÂ Network Live. Naezy contributed a song forÂ the T20 cricket world cup held this year, andÂ another, â€œTragedy Mein Comedy,â€ for All IndiaÂ Bakchod. Most major festivals will haveÂ rappers headlining a stage or two. AntisocialÂ in Mumbai hosted a grand evening calledÂ hip-hop Homeland a few months ago asÂ well, a culmination of a series of short filmsÂ documenting the rise of hip-hop in IndiaÂ made by the online youth portal 101India.Â The gig was packed to capacity, featuring aÂ range of artists including Mumbaiâ€™s FinestÂ and Swadesi, a couple of popular crews.Â Further, there were literally hundreds of kidsÂ whoâ€™d gathered there that day, blocking theÂ road outside the venue. They were deniedÂ entry because they were too young to buy aÂ beer, and yet they refused to leave, just sortÂ of hanging around until they were chasedÂ away by cops. The press has shown interest,Â both Indian and international. Music videosÂ have made their way to TV sets. Thereâ€™sÂ also a film that Zoya Akhtar is working on,Â inspired by the stories of Divine and NaezyÂ (although, given past dalliances betweenÂ Bollywood and the underground, itâ€™s bestÂ to reserve judgment until later).
All these occurrences, though, areÂ merely happy consequences. In truth, theÂ underground hip-hop movement in theÂ country has been built from the ground upÂ by the artists themselves. Without gettingÂ too emphatic about it, the attention andÂ praise being heaped is a natural outcomeÂ of the thought and hard work that hasÂ gone into establishing it.
According to Divine and several others,Â the Internet has been instrumental,Â and anyone with a smartphone and a 3GÂ connection can now hear the music. TheÂ early days of this movement started off asÂ a truly DIY thing: in the case of Naezy, hisÂ first song, â€œAafat,â€ was put together with theÂ help of his crew; he even made the videoÂ on his own, using an iPad. Being notoriousÂ in his area â€” Kurla, Mumbai-70, whichÂ he references often â€” being the guy whoÂ was always up to no good, helped. The 100Â or so people who knew about the antics ofÂ Naved Shaikh checked it out and beganÂ talking about it. Those guys would then goÂ to other â€™hoods and share the song with theirÂ extended friends circle, eventually spawningÂ a legitimate fan following through word ofÂ mouth and internet hits. Divineâ€™s first videoÂ was shot on a cell phone as well.
This wave of homegrown hip-hop we see now is about three or four years old, but the form has been around for far longer. Bob Omulo â€” MC Bobkat at Bombay Bassment â€” has been a vocal champion of the scene (having also contributed columns for this publication). Originally from Kenya, Omulo has been part of underground hip-hop in India for over a decade, and speaks of the massive impact the b-boys had well before the breakout acts of today. â€œItâ€™s a culture, and the b-boys exemplify it the most. They form crews, and theyâ€™re like a family,â€ says Omulo. â€œThey look out for each other.â€ The first wave, in the mid-2000s or so, included a lot of people rapping in English: â€œThat stage was a spurt of interest, and now you have people whoâ€™ve grown up with the music. Theyâ€™re not talking about hanging out with â€˜bitches in the clubâ€™ or rolling out in cars. Itâ€™s stuff people can relate to. The homegrown acts have adapted hip-hop to vernacular, regional languages. This is whatâ€™s necessary, in my opinion, for hip-hop to really take root in any society. All the things that are here right nowâ€¦ I attribute that to the kids whoâ€™ve been ciphering and rapping for years for absolutely nothing except the love of it.â€
Mumbaiâ€™s Ace (Abhishek Dhusia), a veteran of the scene at the age of 28, tells me about starting Mumbaiâ€™s Finest with AP and Top Dawg back in 2006. The first song they wrote was â€œShake It,â€ where they picked up a headphone mic to record, mined Soundclick.com for a catchy beat to set the words over, and put it up. â€œThat song became a Bluetooth viral thing. Weâ€™d go eat bhurji pao at 3a.m. near Andheri Station and people would be bumping that shit. We were like, â€˜Oh, thatâ€™s my song,â€™ and they wouldnâ€™t believe us,â€ he laughs.
Divine used to be a part of Mumbaiâ€™s Finest as well, and the crew functions as a large collective of rappers, video DJs, b-girls and b-boys, skateboarders, beatboxers, football freestylers. â€œWe were always around, a lot of brothers like us,â€ says Ace with unmistakable pride, â€œbut people are only discovering us right now. Hip-hop is about unity, about brotherhood and loyalty.â€ Heâ€™s in the process of setting up Worth Itt, a startup digital platform and label through which he wants to help push young artists with potential, to guide them and provide them with resources. Itâ€™s an ambition Prabh shares, with plans of running a dedicated hip-hop label at some point.
It stretches beyond the music â€” contextually niche as it may still be, hip-hop , fundamentally, functions as a cultural revolution of sorts (as an aside, gigs will often feature chants of â€œInquilaab Zindabaadâ€ [Long Live The Revolution]). The b-boying, the graffiti, the underground ciphers, the beatboxing and spitting rhymes, the slang, the look â€” allÂ the assorted frills â€” bring about a sense of community. As Naezy says: â€œSure, a little bit of â€˜swagâ€™ comes into it â€” topi tedhi hoti hai [the cap is always tilted sideways], you walk a certain way. But hip-hop becomes a lifestyle, a state of mind.â€
An abstract notion of authenticity becomes intrinsically tied up with what hip-hop means. Itâ€™s where the â€˜Indiannessâ€™ is paramount. TheÂ aesthetics of the term are a little suspect, but â€˜desi hip-hopâ€™ then becomes a legitimate tag. The sonic quality is borrowed largely from American hip-hop â€” Omulo ascribes that to a natural process of creative evolution â€” but the lyrical content is inherent to the Indian experience. Mainstream hip-hop, probably closer to pop music drawing from elements of rap, is rejected in this space because of its derivative nature. The emphasis there, in a nutshell, is on glorifying materialism â€” the sex, drugs, the excesses of fame and money â€”Â an approach often dismissed as dishonest or lacking integrity.
The defining characteristic of underground hip-hop seems to be the focus on actual, lived experiences
Divine doesnâ€™t quite agree with the thought though. â€œI donâ€™t get this definition of â€˜realâ€™. Itâ€™s different for everyone. The commercial rappers talk about cars or money or women because they see it every day; itâ€™s around them. What else will they talk about? You have to be true to yourself in such a situation.â€ He accepts that, who knows, maybe if he were in the same situation, similar content would make its way into his music too.
That said, Divine is clear that, with his own music at least, he wants to preserve the idea of spreading a social message. Itâ€™s something heâ€™s pushing forth in the new music heâ€™s working on as well. â€œItâ€™s very important â€” we have to give back, we have to speak the truth. I try to say things I feel should be said, what Iâ€™ve seen, whatâ€™s going on.â€ The music functions as a way to help kids feel comfortable in their own skin: â€œWe are not ashamed of being ourselves.â€ Talking about the words and their influence, especially in Mumbai, he says: â€œA hawker, an office guy, a rickshaw-wallah, a guy working in the stock market â€” theyâ€™ll all understand what weâ€™re saying.â€
The defining characteristic of underground hip-hop seems to be the focus on actual, lived experiences, as a way to reach out and effectÂ meaningful change. On things that might matter on a socio-political level. Prabh lives in Tilak Nagar, in west Delhi, and a lot of the lyrical material he tackles is about the things affecting him, and those around. He recently lost a childhood friend to a drug overdose, the eighth such incident he can recall in the past year. So heâ€™s writing about these issues affecting his area, trying to motivate people.Â Naezy uses a carefully constructed fusion of Hindi, Urdu, and Bambaiya slang in his verses â€” even in conversation, heâ€™s articulate, thoughtful, and rat-a-tat, shifting from a throwaway â€œEk number, bantaiâ€ to poetic Urdu monologs effortlessly â€” to connect with listeners who can relate to his words. Corruption, bribery, police brutality, moral decay in forgotten neighborhoods: these are all themes covered in the music. Naezy, specifically, has had frequent run-ins with the authorities â€” gang-related, drug-related, petty crimes â€” so the subject matter is often deeply personalized. â€œItâ€™s helping break class barriers,â€ he says, discussing the impact of the words in this movement, drawing a direct parallel to the US.
When he was in the eleventh grade, there was one fateful ride on a Mumbai local that he took with a friend. The friend, as it turns out, had been following a girl around, and the duo were arrested as soon as they reached the station. â€œMere dost kaand karein, mujhe kya pata? (How can I know what shit my friends are up to?)â€ is a line from a new song heâ€™s working on. They were beaten up a little, eventually finding themselves at a police chowki in Mulund, some 30-40 km from where he lives. His friendâ€™s father, an influential man, paid the requisite fine and got his son out, but there was no one that Naezy could call, given that his father was working in Dubai at the time.
It was a watershed moment for him, realizing that he was heading down an unpleasant path. Eventually, he sought a distant uncle to help out, but he remembers how the behavior of the policemen changed considerably once they looked at his ID card and saw his name, even though he wasnâ€™t the prime culprit in this situation, but more an accomplice (unwitting or otherwise). The discrimination, for Naved Shaikh, was first-hand, and it makes its way into his words too â€” an outlet for the anger he has.
The experiences of the young urban Indian woman are bound to be radically different from that of the male rapper, which in turn affects the musical direction that rappers such as MC Kaur (Manmeet Kaur) and Dee MC (Deepa Unnikrishnan) take. The spirit remains the same â€” a thread of rebellion and self-expression giving life to the music â€” but the words reflect a different perspective. MC Kaur has an album called hip-hop Bahu. â€œPost Wedding Bluesâ€ is about her life after getting married â€” the expectations one faces and the fear of living up to them.
On â€œArt Saviours,â€ which places a shuddering beat atop Indian-sounding samples, she raps: â€œBut donâ€™t buy the crap they serve on TV/ That show of reality/ That saasâ€“bahuâ€“biwi, get off that!/ Fabricated news on a repeat, thatâ€™s wack!â€ Dee MC again explores the challenges and obstacles of gender inequality, from independence to the difficulty of traversing hip-hop in India. â€œDonâ€™t you know that deeva is the female version of the hustlerâ€, she says in â€œDeevaâ€, before moving on to: â€œOnly queen in the scene to give you a checkmateâ€, alluding, perhaps, to the suspicions that Indian rap is still a bit of a boysâ€™ club.
Thereâ€™s a popular market in Greater Kailash â€“ 1 in Delhi called the M-Block market. Itâ€™s a refuge of the privileged, frequented by people who live nearby, where real estate has flourished â€” letâ€™s say Rs. 40 crore for an average-sized plot. The market goes through periodic overhauls every five to 10 years. Right now, itâ€™s a mix of expensive boutiques and shops, some hippy-dippy urban wellness and healthy living shops, a few â€˜funky-trendy-hip-coolâ€™ new-age clothes stores, coffee shop chains, and a clutch of bars and restaurants. And Prince Paan Shop, a bona fide Delhi institution. The people walking around are advertisements for luxury brands, as also aÂ fleeting glimpse of what one does when we have more money than sense.
In this market, I meet Uday Kapur, a journalist whoâ€™s been writing extensively about the hip-hop movement in India. Kapur previously worked at OML as a writer before moving on to manage Naezy. These days, he occasionally performs live with Naezy (besides being a DJ himself), triggering his backing tracks and, on occasion, â€œhyping himâ€, i.e. filling up any empty spots in the rap as Naezy â€” who has a fairly frantic, rapid-fire delivery on stage â€” takes a fraction of a second to catch his breath.
Our primary goal at the time is to talk about hip-hop in India. Soon, though, it quickly turns into finding a bar cheap enough to accommodate our big hearts and small wallets. We settle on My Bar, originally a small pub in the rather less gentrified locales of Paharganj, and now a popular city-wide franchise of sorts. A beer there costs a pitiful Rs. 120.
Kapur provides me with a comprehensive background of hip-hop: the Punjabi scene; the kind of stuff thatâ€™s happening in Delhi; Mumbaiâ€™s recent over-documented eruption; rapping in the Northeast, and the absence of venues there; the scene in Bengaluru, Hyderabad, and Chennai, and the role the regional film industry plays. Eventually, we reach the abstract, the hypothetical, the academicÂ and the speculative. We speak about authenticity.
Most often, artists here bring about a mix of autobiographical narration and an insistence on tackling the real-life struggles of youth around, which resonates across different audiences. Old school rappers in the US have devoted considerable stage time to their experience on the streets, to gang violence and drugs and murder. That template has been adapted, tailored to an Indian context for the sake of honesty and realism, as Indian rappers sing about their life on the streets, in the gullies, on matters of oppression and discrimination.
Itâ€™s an Indian idiom being applied to a concept that already existed â€” the artists are adding a new layer, creating a new kind of vocabulary within the existing aesthetic of the form. They want to say the things they believe in, and do it in a way that rings true, instead of merely aping their heroes. Ace says: â€œLafda hoyega, then you wonâ€™t say, â€˜F**k you, mother**kerâ€™. Youâ€™ll say, â€˜Teri maa ki ch**tâ€™. So why not do this shit in your regional tongue?â€
Itâ€™s a delicate subject â€” the matter of originality and authenticity, of placing your own imprint on to a form â€” thatâ€™s become much discussed. Rishu Singh, Mumbai-based promoter and founder of events agency Ennui.Bomb, has been organizing aÂ regular series of gigs called Hip-Hop BombÂ Thursdays since early 2015, showcasingÂ young hip-hop acts to pub-going audiencesÂ in Mumbai. While his prior work has beenÂ mostly by way of independent rock â€˜nâ€™ roll,Â Singh admits a deep fascination for theÂ culture of hip-hop. He has an interestingÂ analogy about the insistence for social messagesÂ within the music, and the DIY spiritÂ that runs through it: â€œThe whole vibe is veryÂ â€˜punk rockâ€™, in its own way. Youâ€™re trying toÂ do things differently, by your own standards,Â your own ethics. These boys were just doingÂ it on their own; it was all very â€˜antiâ€™, very in-your-Â face; kya bolta, bantai. I could identifyÂ with it.â€
The theme of local pride is ever-present.Â Itâ€™s a kind of acknowledgement of where youÂ come from â€” the streets, the â€™hood, the gully,Â the ghetto, the ilaka, call it what you willÂ â€” and also a sincere attempt at capturingÂ a snapshot of that life. Dissecting Divineâ€™sÂ lyrical flair on â€œJungli Sher,â€ Kapur points toÂ the third line of the song â€“ â€œMere daal meinÂ nahi tha tadka.â€ He says, â€œIt canâ€™t get moreÂ Indian that that, and by using a common,Â simple food item such as dal which cutsÂ across classes, Divine manages to paint aÂ picture of where heâ€™s from and what kind ofÂ life heâ€™s had. Itâ€™s a lyric that can only work inÂ a South Asian context, and thatâ€™s somethingÂ youâ€™ll find is a common characteristic acrossÂ Indian hip-hop.â€
Ace emphasizes the competitive natureÂ of hip-hop: the incessant need to be at theÂ very top of your game, dissing other rappers,Â improving your own skills, trying to outdoÂ each other. This competition becomes asÂ essential as that sense of loyalty, but thatâ€™sÂ where the purity of intentions comes intoÂ it. Personal growth is an aspiration, whichÂ leads to positive one-upmanship. HardÂ work, he feels, can lead to that skill level,Â but that itâ€™s ultimately about being relevant.Â â€œAnyone can be on top,â€ says Ace. â€œSurvivalÂ is more important. How every time youâ€™reÂ down, you learn and wait to come back up,Â never giving up. If you have that conviction,Â youâ€™re a rebel, and, no matter what the worldÂ says, youâ€™ll always be one.â€
A self-awareness runs deep into theÂ thought process of the artists. You hearÂ â€œMere Gully Meinâ€ and you understand thatÂ Divine is attempting to bridge some kindÂ of a gap between his experience, and theÂ resentment of countless others like him.Â Thereâ€™s research, dedication, cultivationÂ of skill, inborn talent, all topped off with aÂ healthy sprinkling of brutal honesty and self-expressionÂ â€” and, of course, humor. NaezyÂ waited some six months before releasingÂ â€œAafat,â€ spending time to study the scene andÂ figure out a plan. He deliberated over theÂ technical aspects of rapping and the intersectionÂ between the origins of the form andÂ the context of Indian culture. How he addedÂ Bambaiya slang, multiple syllable rhymes,Â catchy beats, a rhythmic flow and incorporatedÂ new trends in hip-hop.
Underground hip-hop â€” desi hip-hop â€”Â is on this radical upswing right now. LeavingÂ aside the social relevance of the music,Â thereâ€™s seemingly a high level of quality thatÂ exists, although thereâ€™s some disagreementÂ to that aspect when it comes to the new cropÂ finding an original voice. Thatâ€™s a creativeÂ concern the artists have, coupled with theÂ constant rebellion against the flippancy ofÂ mainstream hip-hop. Beyond that, it merelyÂ boils down to logistical concerns. RishuÂ Singh tells me how the obstacles mirror theÂ problems the independent rock communityÂ faced at its onset: â€œThe kids who come for aÂ gig donâ€™t have enough money to buy a beerÂ for Rs. 400. It makes it unfeasible for a venueÂ to host hip-hop gigs. But thatâ€™ll change asÂ the kids who come today, whoâ€™re in collegeÂ right now, grow up and start earning.â€
SezÂ points to the importance of marketing theÂ music. Underground hip-hop will get 1,000Â plays, even 10,000 plays, maybe even more.Â But thatâ€™s nothing compared to a video onÂ YouTube of a song by, say, Badshah, whichÂ will have some 50 million hits. â€œPeople donâ€™tÂ understand the value of investment in theirÂ own art right now, which is very important.â€Â Omulo speaks of an absence of large-scaleÂ outlets for vernacular rappers, whoâ€™re forcedÂ to compete against the might of BollywoodÂ and only have one TV channel, Pepsi MTVÂ Indies, thatâ€™ll air their videos.
But, from the outside, hip-hop seems to beÂ looking forward, not back. Thereâ€™s grandÂ ambition all around, from setting up labelsÂ to performing all over the world to making itÂ to Bollywood. Naezy says: â€œAn undergroundÂ fan base is great, but why should I limit it toÂ that? Itâ€™s important to reach out to moreÂ people to spread the message. Who knows,Â maybe itâ€™ll just go thapp in a couple of years.Â But once you make it to the mainstream,Â kuch toh bhala hoga. Samaaj mein kuch tohÂ badlaav laana hai.â€
All the action from behind the scenes of our #RSIndianHipHop cover shoot.